Dyslexia

Definition

Dyslexia is a disability that can hinder a person’s ability to read, write, and spell. It is a common learning disability in children and lasts throughout life. The severity of dyslexia can vary from mild to severe.

Causes

The causes of dyslexia are neurobiological (having to do with the way the brain is formed and how it functions) and genetic (passed down through families). Dyslexia may also occur in people later in life due to other conditions, such as stroke.

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Risk Factors

The only known risk factor is having a family member with dyslexia.

Symptoms

Symptoms may include difficulty in the following areas:

  • Learning to speak
  • Reading and writing at grade level
  • Organizing written and spoken language
  • Learning letters and their sounds
  • Learning number facts
  • Spelling
  • Learning a foreign language
  • Correctly doing math problems

Diagnosis

You will be asked about you or your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a hearing and vision test. You may then be referred to an expert in learning disabilities, such as a school psychologist, learning specialist, or neurologist (doctor who specializes in the nervous system) for additional testing.

Additional tests may be done. These may include:

  • Cognitive processing tests—measure of thinking ability
  • IQ test—measure of intellectual functioning
  • Tests to measure speaking, reading, spelling, and writing skills

Treatment

Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or other trained professional. Talk with the doctor and learning specialist about the best treatment plan for you or your child. Treatment options include:

Remediation

Remediation is a way of teaching that helps people with dyslexia to learn language skills. It uses the following concepts:

  • Teach small amounts of information at a time
  • Teach the same concepts many times—a concept known as over-teaching
  • Use all the senses—hearing, vision, voice, and touch—to enhance learning (multisensory reinforcement)

Compensatory Strategies

Compensatory strategies are ways to work-around the effects of dyslexia. They include:

  • Audio taping classroom lessons, homework assignments, and texts
  • Using flashcards
  • Sitting in the front of the classroom
  • Using a computer with spelling and grammar checks
  • Receiving more time to complete homework or tests

Prevention

There is little that can be done to prevent dyslexia, especially if it runs in your family. However, early identification and treatment can reduce its effects. The sooner children with dyslexia get special education services, the fewer problems they will have learning to read and write at grade level. Under US federal law, free testing and special education services are available for children in the public school system.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
  • Review Date: 02/2014 -
  • Update Date: 02/13/2014 -
  • International Dyslexia Association

    http://www.interdys.org

  • National Center for Learning Disabilities

    http://www.ld.org

  • Canadian Dyslexia Association

    http://www.dyslexiaassociation.ca

  • Health Canada

    http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

  • Dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/kid/health%5Fproblems/learning%5Fproblem/dyslexia.html. Updated July 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.

  • Dyslexia. National Center for Learning Disabilities website. Available at: http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/dyslexia. Accessed February 13, 2014.

  • Dyslexia basics. International Dyslexia Association website. Available at: http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/DyslexiaBasicsREVMay2012.pdf. Published 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.

  • Frequently asked questions about dyslexia. International Dyslexia Association website. Available at: http://www.interdys.org/FAQ.htm. Accessed February 13, 2014.

  • Kids with dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/learning/dyslexia.html. Updated July 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.

  • Understanding dyslexia. KidsHealth.org website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/school%5Fjobs/school/dyslexia.html. Updated July 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.